India's Ravichandran Ashwin claimed four wickets as Afghanistan were skittled out for 109 on Friday, lasting just one session in their debut Test innings.
After India's 474, the Afghans failed to handle the bowling attack of the world's top Test side as they survived only 27.5 overs in the second session on day two in Bangalore.
Left-arm spinner Ravindra Jadeja got Mujeeb Ur Rahman stumped for 15 to end the innings as tea was taken. India have enforced the follow-on.
Ashwin returned figures of 4-27 with his off-spin, while Jadeja and paceman Ishant Sharma took two each.